Shine Trader Live reports:
In British schools, PHYSICAL education is as important as academic subjects. There is even the concept of “sports first, study second”. Whether in or out of school, physical education in Britain not only helps children keep fit, but also focuses on cultivating their independence and strong and brave willpower.
Sport plays a very important role in the Education system of the UK. Both at the national level and the social level, great attention has been paid to the influence of sport on teenagers. Scientific PE curriculum system, sufficient social support and rich innovative practices have injected continuous vitality and vitality into the reform and development of PE in British primary and secondary schools.
Physical education in the National curriculum in England
In September 2013, the British Ministry of Education launched a new round of national curriculum reform, issued the British National Curriculum Framework Document, and proposed the purpose of the national physical education curriculum is: to encourage all students to participate in competitive sports activities and other sports and achieve excellent performance; To provide students with confidence in sports and develop a healthy and active lifestyle; Build character of young people through rich sports activities and instill values of fairness and respect in students.
In the UK’s national physical education curriculum system, there are different acquisition objectives in each stage of primary and secondary schools, that is, the knowledge, skills and specific processes of physical education learning projects.
In KS1-2 (grades 1-6), students acquire basic motor skills, develop agility, balance and coordination, participate in cooperative and competitive sports activities, understand how to improve athletic performance, and learn how to evaluate and recognize wins and losses;
In KS3-4 stages (grade 7 to 11), students acquired target for the elementary school to learn skills more skilled, self-confident, professionally applied to different sports, and master the movement principle and skills, actively involved in the complex and difficult sports activities, sports training interest at the same time, improve personal exercise consciousness, forming positive and healthy lifestyle.
It is worth mentioning that all schools are required to provide swimming instruction to students at kS1-2 level and each student must reach a minimum distance of 25m in confident and skilled strokes (e.g. freestyle, backstroke and breaststroke) by the end of year 6 and be able to perform safe self-rescue in different water environments.
In terms of specific learning content and target requirements, take THE UK general Secondary education stage (KS3-4) as an example. According to the national curriculum framework, physical education in secondary education stage should be broad, coherent and practical, aiming at enabling students to master knowledge and skills, develop understanding, and improve health and happiness index.
At this stage, students’ learning requirements for physical education include:
(1) Develop theoretical knowledge to understand the basic factors that influence sport and use this knowledge to improve performance;
(2) Understand how physical and mental states affect athletic performance;
(3) Carry out all kinds of sports activities effectively by developing skills and abilities;
(4) Understand the benefits of sport for health, exercise and happiness;
(5) Understand the social influences that influence people’s participation in sports activities (see chart).
Based on the sports knowledge and skills in the stage of secondary education, general secondary education test of sports, students need to be in the national curriculum framework of the team and individual sports rules evaluated three different sports project, one for the team project, a project for the individual, the third team or individual project can be chosen optionally.
Team sports include soccer, badminton, basketball, Irish-style hockey, cricket, dancing, Gaelic football, handball, hockey, cricket, cricket, cricket, cricket, cricket, cricket, hockey, cricket, hockey, cricket, cricket, rowing, union rugby, rugby, squash, table tennis, tennis, volleyball. Individual sports include amateur boxing, athletics, badminton, canoeing, cycling, dancing, diving, golf, gymnastics, equestrian, Eskimo canoeing, rock climbing, rowing, double paddle rowing, skiing, snowboarding, squash, swimming, table tennis, tennis, trampoline.
In addition, team sports for special students include cricket for the blind, goalball for the blind, wheelchair football, wheelchair basketball and wheelchair rugby.
Individual events include floor bowling and plate table tennis. Students should be able to show their basic qualities in sports and activities during the assessment process, that is, the appropriate use of technology to demonstrate their own motor skills; Demonstrate and apply appropriate decision-making skills, strategies or integrated programs in sports; Present ideas and solutions in a spontaneous or predetermined way under pressure; Use appropriate physical characteristics/attributes (e.g. strength, endurance, speed, flexibility, coordination) to achieve success; To show certain psychological control (such as excitement, anxiety, aggression) in the process of sports to achieve success; Continuously analyze and evaluate individual performance during exercise to achieve continuous improvement.
Social forces strongly promote sports
In addition to the continuous promotion of sports in primary and secondary schools at the national level, the social force is also a huge driving force for student sports. Youth Sport Trust (YST), a national children’s charity based in Leicestershire, England, has been harnessing the power of Sport to improve the lives of children since it was founded in 1995. It has pioneered an approach that cuts across practice, policy and research, providing sustained momentum to improve the lives of younger generations through successful partnerships. Its mission is to explore the use of new exercise programmes to improve children’s health so that every child can benefit from the life-changing opportunities that sport brings.
According to the YST report, teenagers in the UK today face challenges such as lack of physical activity, one in five children being obese by the time they leave primary school, a lack of resilience and confidence, having to deal with pressure from social media, changes in personal relationships, rising levels of exam pressure and falling empathy. And high youth unemployment among students entering adulthood, which can affect their physical health, social relationships and emotions.
These pressures for first started school, and gradually into the high school and enter the job market in terms of teenagers will be amplified, especially for girls, black, Asian and other ethnic minorities, and persons with disabilities, it would be a more difficult disadvantaged children, this will reduce the generation of teenagers life opportunities, limiting their ideals and potential, makes the inequality and curing unfavorable factors.
Based on this, YST uses the power of sport and education to enhance individuals’ abilities in life (self-confidence, resilience, teamwork, creativity); Building people-to-people bonds (community bonds, inclusive opportunities and equality of opportunity); Support network (school, family and community partners, decision makers and researchers), and by helping young people get more opportunities including higher accomplishments and achievements, more healthy way of life, make the child become happier, more young, healthy people, better employees, colleagues and citizens, better friends, family members and neighbors, give full play to their potential.
The YST Organization published its 2013-2018 Strategy six years ago: Sports change life “the change of more than 350 children living strategic plan, committed to trying to make every child has a good start, for young people with special education needs and disability sports opportunities, and support them to achieve their best potential, movement of 1 million primary school students and 2.5 million middle school students the opportunity to participate in sports activities, And helping 250,000 young leaders, volunteers and teachers with disabilities get involved in sports.
As of 2018, the YST organization has achieved the following:
(1) 4.7 million children have been helped to participate in sports (1.8 million primary school students and 2.9 million secondary school students);
(2) 210,000 young people and adults received practice in experiential activities;
(3) 99,000 teachers supported by YST achieved continuous professional development;
(4) Working with 43 national sports regulatory bodies;
(5) Partnerships have been established with 70 institutions (government departments, local authorities, sports bodies and commercial bodies, etc.).
Then, in 2018, the YST organization released a new five-year strategy, the 2018-2022 Strategy: Believing in every Child’s Future, focusing on six goals:
(1) Changing the status of physical education in the school curriculum and making it central to children’s happiness and educational achievement;
(2) Remove barriers to sport and ensure sport is inclusive, accessible and fun for young people in the UK;
(3) To unleash the motor potential of a child at every stage, especially when they face injustice or disadvantage;
(4) Give positive initiative;
(5) Support the impact of physical activity, physical education curriculum and sport through research and insight;
(6) Strengthen infrastructure, improve equipment and systems to ensure the realization of its mission.
These goals can help address the problem of declining happiness among young people and the younger generation’s lack of capacity to cope with the challenges of the 21st century. YST sees sport, games and physical activity as key to addressing these challenges, but many times something doesn’t work.
Children are a very active group, but also the most likely to miss out on movement as a force for change. To help young people discover the joy of sport and develop a happy and active lifestyle, YST organisations need to support schools, teachers, parents and coaches to build a strong foundation of partnerships to tackle challenges and improve the lives of the younger generation.
For example, in 2017, the British government issued the Childhood Obesity Plan, which stipulates that all children should do 60 minutes of physical activity every day. Accordingly, YST launched the Active 30:30 Plan, which aims to strengthen the collaboration between families, clubs and communities and ensure that students do more than 30 minutes of physical activity provided by schools. A chance to get the remaining 30 minutes of exercise. By joining forces with all sectors to achieve its strategic objectives, similar partnerships can ensure that every child has the opportunity to fulfil his or her potential and enjoy the benefits of physical activity.
Carry on innovation practice to PE curriculum
In recent years, a number of psychological and cognitive behavioral studies have confirmed the benefits yoga can provide to children’s spiritual development. More and more primary and secondary schools in the UK are introducing yoga and mindfulness lessons as part of their PE curriculum, or as lunchtime activity options or after-school club activities, and defining them as fun learning tools that guide and nurture children’s physical development, designed to keep them calm, realistic and happy. In some UK state and special education schools, there are qualified yoga and mindfulness teachers to teach yoga and mindfulness to children from pre-primary to sixth grade.
Yoga activities at the school include:
(1) Yoga and Mindfulness Theme Day;
(2) Yoga and mindfulness practices for personal, social and health education (PSHE);
(3) intervention teaching for academic laggards;
(4) Use yoga and mindfulness to engage students in physical education classes;
(5) Support students to face the test pressure, clear the brain pressure, stable breathing.
Of course, in the process of innovation and reform of physical education curriculum, British educators and scholars from all walks of life are also constantly reflecting that every physical activity has its functions and applicability, naturally there are also limitations that cannot be ignored.
Psychologist Dr Stephanie Fitzgerald said schools need to view their provided objective content of yoga, yoga does not replace the child’s physical activity, the key to relieve stress is the body of the active and releases endorphins continuously, children need to have plenty of energy release in competitive sports activities, and other sports.
Therefore, yoga cannot replace physical education in school, but can be used as a supplement to physical education, such as in the afternoon break time, can improve their thinking and concentration.
British physical education has a scientific and rigorous national curriculum framework, sufficient social support and a sense of innovation, which provides a certain inspiration and reference for our physical education teaching concept and curriculum reform.
article links：Education in the UK: Sport changes lives
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